Western Azerbaijani Press

At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the expansion of the press published in the Azerbaijani language led to growing interest in the press in Iravan. At that time, a literary-intellectual environment had already begun to form in Iravan. Intellectuals, especially teachers and graduates of schools in Iravan collaborated with “Akinchi” (1875-1877), “Kashkul” (1883-1891), “Kaspi” (1881-1919), “East-Rus” (1903-1905), “Hayat” “(1905-1906), “Irshad” (1905-1907), “Fuyuzat” (1906-1907), “Molla Nasraddin” (1906-1931) and other newspapers and magazines.

The first press in the Azerbaijani language appeared in Iravan during Tsarist Russia. However, during the existence of the first Armenian state – the Republic of Armenia (Ararat) in the territory of the Iravan governorate in 1918-1920, Azerbaijani language press was not published. After the establishment of the Soviet power in Armenia, from 1921, a newspaper in the Azerbaijani language was published in Iravan with certain intervals. Therefore, the history of newspapers published in the Azerbaijani language in Iravan can be divided into two periods: during Tsarist Russia and during the Soviet rule.

Among the Iravan intellectuals Mirza Kazim Gazi Asgarzade (“Mutalla”), Haji Seyid Rza Amirzade (“Sabir”), and Mahammadali Bey Valiyev collaborated with the “Akinchi” newspaper during the period of Tsarist Russia. Firudin bey Kocharli and Hashim bey Vazirov published articels at “Kashkul” newspaper during their stay in Iravan.

A certain period of the life of a prominent Azerbaijani writer Jalil Mammadguluzade was connected with the city of Iravan. During his stay in Iravan in 1901-1903, Mirza Jalil prepared for the exams to become a lawyer and published articles in “Kaspi” newspaper about the violation of the rights of Azerbaijanis living in Iravan. In the March 7, 1902 edition of the “Kaspi” newspaper, Mirza Jalil’s article entitled “From our Iravan correspondent” talks about the illegal actions carried out by the city municipality to seize 60 orchards planted by Azerbaijanis on the banks of the Zangi river in the southwest of the city. Author’s “Iravan” article published in the “Kaspi” newspaper on March 28, 1902 with signature “C. M.”, it is mentioned that the applications of Azerbaijanis were rejected without discussing them at the meetings of the City Duma. These articles are clear examples of the gross violation of the rights of Azerbaijanis living in the city of Iravan at the beginning of the 20th century by the official state authorities.

Writer-publicist who has a special place in the history of literary and cultural thought of Azerbaijan, alumnus of Iravan Boys’ Gymnasium in 1886, correspondent of “Kaspi” newspaper for Iravan province, writer-publicist Eynali Bey Sultanov published a series of articles about the massacres committed by Armenians against Azerbaijanis in the city of Iravan during the years of 1905-1906. Those articles provide an opportunity to obtain objective information about the events that took place in the city of Iravan at that time.

In 1906, the publication of the magazine “Molla Nasraddin”, which conveyed the shortcomings and deformities of its time to its readers through satire and caricature, caused a great resonance. “Molla Nasraddin” gained a large readership in Iravan in a short period of time. Intellectuals such as Jabbar Asgarzade (Mirza Jabbar Asgar oglu Asgarzade, 1885–1966), Ali Mezhun (Ali Haji Zeynalabdinzade Rahimov, 1886–1934), Mammadali Nasir (Mammadali Nasir Haji Mammadzade Iravani, 1899–1982), Mirza Mahammad Akhundov, Mashadi Mehdi Sadiqzade published their articles on the pages of “Molla Nasraddin” magazine. The correspondents of “Molla Nasraddin” from Iravan wrote with secret signatures due to the fear of the ignorant people who yielded power within the society, some religious figures who did not want the people to be educated, and some wealthy Iravanis who didn’t spare their wealth for the opening of modern schools and the education of the youth. In order to protect themselves from angry gangs Ali Mazhun used signatures such as “Brood frog”, “Orphan chick”, and Jabbar Asgarzade (Ajiz) “Court cat”.

In the pages of “Molla Nasreddin” entrepreneurs, rich and wealthy people were often criticized for being indifferent to the fate of refugees who fled to Baku and Yelizavetpol (Ganja) governorates in order to escape the massacres committed by Armenian armed groups in Iravan governorate and Zangezur district in 1905-1906.

In 1911-1912 and in 1914, the newspaper “Iravansky vestnik” (“News of Iravan”) was published in Iravan. This daily newspaper, which was an organ of the Iravan Society for the Dissemination of Useful Knowledge, published articles in three languages – Russian, Tatar (Azerbaijani) and Armenian – under the rubric “Social-Literary Newspaper”. In this newspaper, Azerbaijani intellectuals of Iravan, Azerbaijani students of Iravan Gymnasium and Iravan Teacher’s Seminary also published their articles.

In the city of Iravan, the first press in the Azerbaijani language was a satirical magazine called “Lek-lek” (Stork). Mirmohammed Mirfatullayev and Jabbar Asgarzade, intellectuals of Iravan, published the first issue of “Lek-Lek” on February 22, after acquiring the permission from the governor of Iravan on January 21, 1914. The words “”Lek-lek” is a weekly humor collection in Turkish language” were written under the title of “Lek-lek” published once a week at “Luys” (“Light”) printing house in Iravan. In the “Main article” published in the first issue of the collection and in the poem “Greetings of Lek-lek” addressed to the people of Iravan, “Lel-lek” declared his mission as “Molla Nasraddin”. Starting from the first issue of the magazine, the ugliness in the socio-political life of Iravan, children’s skipping school and staying away from education, the “clerics” conning of ordinary people under the guise of religion, were conveyed to the readers in satirical language. Critical articles on the pages of the magazine were published under the signatures as “Lak-Lak”, “Harif”, “Kalambash”, “Shaytan”, “Orphan chick”, “Kefli”, “Sharkhata”, “Widow hen”, “Naggal”, “Malik Naggal”, “Owl” “, “Hardamkhayal”, “Palazgulak”, “Court cat”, “Hepand” and others. Many of these signatures were also found in the pages of “Molla Nasraddin”. The secret signature “Hardamkhayal” belonged to Mammad Said Ordubadi, the signature “Malik Naggal” belonged to Aligulu Qamkusar, and the signatures “Shaytan” and “Widow hen” belonged to Mammadali Nasir.

In the pages of the magazine, news from Baku, Tbilisi, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Maku, and Tabriz were conveyed to the readers in a satirical genre. “Lek-Lek” gave its readers a great impetus to the process of national self-awareness by conveying the processes taking place in foreign countries in an instructive manner. The activities of the Muslim Charitable Society in Iravan were often highlighted on the pages of the magazine, and the fact that the development of education and culture was hindered due to disagreement among the members of this society was brought to the attention of the readers.

An article entitled “Language issue” was published in the May 5 and May 19, 1914 issues of “Lek-lek”. In this article of Mammadali Nasir, published under the signature “Widow hen”, first, the “intelligents” who use Russian words in their speech, and then the mullahs, preachers, singers, illiterate people who spoil our language by using Arabic and Persian expressions were criticized.

In the last issue of the journal, which was published in total 12 issues, an appeal to the readers was published with the signatures of M. Mirfatullayev and J. Asgarzade, the director and publisher of “Lek-Lek”. In the application, it was stated that “Lek-lek” would be closed, and instead a new journal called “Chingi” would be presented to the readers. It was also mentioned that the journal “Chingi” will be published under the joint editorship and management of Ali Mazhun Haji Zeynalabdinzade and Jabbar Asgarzade, with the financial and moral support of several enlightened young people of Iravan. However, the fate of “Chingi” remains unclear until now. Israfil Mammadov, a devoted historian, scientist, publicist and translator, who defended his PhD thesis on “History of the Azerbaijani press in Armenia” in Iravan in 1972, for the first time analyzed all issues of “Lek-Lek” and “Burhani-haqikat” journals from various aspects. In the book “Iravan Notebook” published by Israfil Mammadov in 2002, separate chapters are devoted to each of the “Lek-Lek” and “Burhani-Haqiat” magazines.

There is no information about the publication of any press in the Azerbaijani language in Iravan from the closure of the “Lek-Lek” journal till the end of 1916.

During the First World War, Russian troops attacked Eastern Anatolia from the Caucasus front. Armenian volunteer units were formed in the city of Iravan to help Russia occupy Turkish lands, and after a while they were sent to the front. Armenian soldiers were commiting violence against Azerbaijanis in the city. On the other hand, most of the Armenian refugees coming to the South Caucasus from Eastern Anatolia went to the city of Iravan and its surrounding villages. Under such conditions, it was a very difficult task to publish a press in the Azerbaijani language. However, after long correspondence, the “Burhani-haqiqat” journal was published on January 1, 1917 under the editorship of the well-known mollanasraddinchi, poet, publicist Ali Mazhu and Hasan Mirzazade Aliyev, one of the influential intellectuals of Iravan. The word “Burhan” is Arabic and means evidence, proof. In the first issue of “Burhani-haqiqat”, in the editorial article entitled “Haqiqat”, he declared that he would prove to his readers in the future issues that the name of the journal coincides with its deeds. The publishing of “Burhani-haqiqat” was an important event in the socio-political life and literary environment of Iravan.

A total of 9 issues of the journal were published twice a month at the “Luys” printing house in Iravan. Ali Mehzun involved various qualified intellectuals living in the city of Iravan, students of the Iravan Teachers’ Seminary to cooperate with the journal for the education of the people. The well-known mollanesradinchi Jabbar Asgarzade (Ajiz), the author of textbooks in Persian and Russian Mirza Jabbar Mammadov, the intellectuals Rahim Naji, Vahid Mughanli and Tahvil Iravani who wrote articles on natural sciences and medicine, the poetesses Shohrat, Nigar, Sari, Abdulhaq Mehrinisa, Fatma Mufida, Ramziyya were authors of “Burhani-haqiqat”.

“Burhani-haqiqat” besides saving its readers from the oppression of ignorance, had missions such as explaining the happenings in the language of the truth, explaining the true purpose of individual parties and institutions to the masses, showing the forces behind the murders and robberies, mass killings, and preventing the attempts of Armenians to falsify the history of our material and cultural monuments in Iravan.

After the February revolution of 1917, the “Burhani-Haqiqat” magazine published an article titled “Freedom, Equality, Justice” and wrote that as much as it is difficult to win freedom, it is even more difficult to keep it. The assembly urged Azerbaijani voters to take a serious approach to the election process and choose worthy representatives from among themselves. Ali Mehsun in his article, “Freedom or slavery?” raised his voice of protest against the atrocities committed by Armenians against Azerbaijanis and wrote: “Hundreds of Muslims are insulted by Armenian soldiers every day on the boulevard, street, and market. Even at eight o’clock at night, not a single Muslim can be found on the boulevard. Many do not even dare to go to the theater. The reason is to be insulted and beaten anyway. Freedom? Slavery? Yes, it is a terrible slavery. Who should I turn to? And who should ask for a cure?”

“Burhani-haqiqat” presented its articles to its readers mainly under five headings – “Dictionary of the Dictionary”, “On Literature”, “Household Issues”, “Scientific Articles” and “Announcement Department”. The first issues of the journal were prepared in Iravan and sent to Tbilisi, and were printed after receiving permission from the censor. Due to censorship problems, the 2nd and 4th issues of the journal were not released on time, some of the articles were changed. Although the publisher and editor of the journal prepared to publish “Burhani-haqiqat” in the volume of 16 pages, they did not succeed. The magazine was closed after its 9th issue, which was released on June 29.

In 1917, a number of public institutions such as “Irshad”, “Ittihad”, “Yeni Firqa”, “Mudafieyi Mazluman” with a social-democratic orientation, the Iravan Muslim National Council, and the Iravan Muslim Charitable Society were operating in Iravan. Undoubtedly, some of them had press agencies, but at that time, only there is information only about the publication of a newspaper called “Javanlar shurasi”. The Muslim National Council of Iravan united patriotic forces around itself. This council cooperated with Armenian political organizations to prevent bloody clashes on ethnic grounds in Iravan. In the bibliographic-informational book “Periodical Press in Azerbaijan (1832-1920)” compiled by Nazim Akhundov, it is mentioned that the weekly political-social, literary newspaper “Javanlar shurasi” was published by the National Council of Iravan Azerbaijani students Rza Tagiyev, M.A. Nasir and Mir Fatullayev in 1920.

As noted by Israfil Mammadov, the first researcher of the history of the Azerbaijani press in Iravan, it was impossible to publish a newspaper in the Azerbaijani language during the genocide against Azerbaijanis in Iravan in 1920. On the other hand, Mammadali Nasir, one of the editors of the newspaper, came to Ganja city in 1918 after escaping the persecution of the Dashnaks, where he continued his journalistic activities. Since the Muslim National Council of Iravan was active until the Dashnaks came to power in May 1918, it can be estimated that the “Javanlar shurasi” was published in the second half of 1917 and the first half of 1918.

In 1918-1920, during the Dashnak rule of Armenia, while there was no press published in the Azerbaijani language in Iravan, at that time in Baku Armenian language mewspapers such as “Arev” (“Sun”), “Ashkhatavori dzayn” (Voice of the Worker), “Ashkhatanki droshak” (“Flag of Labor” “), “Banvori hosk” (“Worker’s word”), “Gordz” (“Work”), “Yerkir” (“Country”) were being published. As Armenian historians claim today, if “genocide” had been committed against Armenians in Baku in 1918, so many newspapers and magazines would not have been published.

“Communist” was the first newspaper published in Azerbaijani language in Soviet Armenia. It is known that shortly after the establishment of the Soviet power in Armenia on November 29, 1920, the issue of the representation of the Azerbaijani population in the central government bodies came to the agenda. In the early days, these representatives were sent from Azerbaijan. In mid-January 1921, a person named Suleyman Nuri was sent to the Armenian Revolutionary Committee to take a leadership position. Süleyman Nuri, a member of the Communist Party of Turkey headed by Mustafa Subhi, stayed in Baku and was one of the organizers of the First Congress of Eastern Nations held in Baku in September 1920. Suleyman Nuri, who was sent to Iravan as a member of the Armenian Military-Revolutionary Committee in mid-January 1921, was appointed People’s Commissioner of Justice and Chairman of the Supreme Court by the decision of the Council of People’s Commissars of Armenia. Suleyman Nuri writes in his memoirs that he was also involved in the creation of communist cells composed of local Turks living in Iravan. Suleyman Nuri notes: “…based on my proposal, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia sent a letter to Baku, a fellow newspaperman named Semih Huseyn was invited to Iravan as an editor, and the publications of this newspaper, published in the language of the local Turks of Iravan, became more productive.”

In another part of his memoirs, Suleyman Nuri writes that the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic had a reserve police battalion under the command of a Turkish officer from Istanbul named Semih Huseyn. Semih Huseyn, like some Turks, stayed in Baku after the fall of the People’s Republic, joined the Communist Party, and worked together with Suleyman Nuri. It is very likely that Semih Huseyn, who was invited to Iravan as a newspaper editor from Baku, was the same person mentioned by Suleyman Nuri. It is concluded that the opinion put forward by some researchers about Hamid Ganizadeh being the editor of “Communist” is wrong. Hamid Ganizade was not the editor of “Communist”, but of “Ranjbar” newspaper published in the second half of 1921.

In the second half of February 1921, the Dashnaks revolted and overthrew the Soviet government in Armenia, and the city of Iravan fell into the hands of the Dashnaks. With that, the “Communist” newspaper stopped its activity. Soviet power was restored in Iravan in April, and a new government – the Council of People’s Commissars – was formed in May. Süleyman Nuri, who did not know the Armenian language and said that it was not effective to work as a commissioner of justice through an interpreter, refused to return to Iravan again. In July 1921, Bala Efendiyev, who was sent from Azerbaijan, was appointed as the deputy commissar of people’s internal affairs. From January 1922, Bala Efendiyev worked as the head of the Turkish section under the department for agitation and propaganda of the Central Committee of the Armenian K(b)P. He was the editor of “Zangi” newspaper. Bala Efendiyev’s wife, Fatma Efendiyeva, was also actively involved in social and political affairs. In addition to being the first female correspondent of “Ranjbar” newspaper, she was the head of a women’s club organized for Azerbaijani women in Iravan. Later, that club, headed by Bulbul Kazimova, did important work in carrying out cultural and educational work among Azerbaijani women and in the fight against religious superstition. Under the women’s club, which operated until 1949, there were activities for the elimination of illiteracy, tailoring courses, self-activity and drama clubs.

“Ranjbar” newspaper was first published in 500 and then 1000 copies consisting of 4 pages. In 1921, 31 issues were published, and in 1922, 46 issues were published. “Ranjbar” newspaper stopped its publication at the end of December 1922.

Nationalist-chauvinist leaders of Armenia disguised as Bolsheviks did not want Azerbaijanis to return to their native lands. Moreover, they did not want the newspapers to be published in the Azerbaijani language. Ashot Hovanisyan, one of the secretaries of the Central Committee, ordered the closure of the “Ranjbar” newspaper under the pretext that it had few subscribers. On the other hand, in December 1922, the Transcaucasian Country Party Committee discussed the situation of a number of newspapers published in the Transcaucasia and made a decision. The decision stated: “The publication of newspapers published in Turkish in Iravan and Batumi should be stopped. It should be considered necessary to publish a common national newspaper for Transcaucasian Turks. “Yeni fikir” newspaper, which is an organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, should be published daily as an organ of the Transcaucasian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars.”

Bala Efendiyev, the head of the Turkish department under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia, in his report covering the activities of the department in the years 1922-1925, indicated that since 1923, the “Ranjbar” newspaper, an organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia, was closed by the decision of the Transcaucasian Country Committee, the “Yeni fikir” newspaper began to be published instead, however it could not meet the needs and demands of the Azerbaijani population of Armenia.

As a result of Bala Efendiyev’s hard work, on November 29, 1925, under his editorship, “Zengi” newspaper was published as an organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia and the Council of People’s Commissars of the Armenian SSR. This newspaper, which was first published once a week, and then twice, played an exceptional role in educating Azerbaijanis, protecting their rights, and transitioning to the new Turkish alphabet. The newspaper published under the name “Zengi” until the end of 1928 was published under the name “Gizil Shafaq” from January 1929. “Gizil Shafaq” wrote about its predecessor: “Zengi” newspaper appeared as the first tool and forerunner to create the history of the cultural revolution of the mass of workers and peasants who lived in Armenia and spoke Turkish. It has done a great job in the educational and cultural advancement of Turkish workers thanks to the agitation and ideological struggle that it has conducted in its activity, which was published twice a week and lasted for three years. Its dawns will be helpful in educating the Turkish working masses and involving them in the construction of socialism.”

After Bala Efendiyev was appointed to the post of public security commissioner in Armenia in 1926, Mustafa Huseynov became the editor of the newspaper. In January 1930, Ali Akerakli was appointed editor of the “Gizil Shafaq” newspaper. About this, Rza Valibeyov writes in his memoirs that Ali Akerakli, a graduate of the Transcaucasian Communist University, was sent to Basarkecher district to lead the collectivization work by the order of the Central Committee. At that time, when he met with the second secretary of the Central Committee of Armenia K(b)P Aghasi Khanjan, who was visiting Basarkechar, he said that the office of the Central Committee appointed him as the editor of the “Gizil Shafaq” newspaper without asking for his consent. This was due to the fact that at that time, when appointing an editor to newspapers, the Communist Party did not consider the person’s background in editorship or journalism, but his political maturity.

In 1932-1936, Mustafa Huseynov was again appointed as the editor of “Gizil Shafaq”. Mustafa Huseynov, who was born in Turkey, was arrested for hiring a Turkish friend who had come from Turkey to work as a doorman in the editorial office, he was branded as “Turkey’s agent” and shot in 1936. Safar Almammadov was the editor of “Gizil Shafaq” from November 1936 to April 1937. Safar Almammadov was the people’s commissar of justice in the Armenian SSR for a while, and later the minister of justice in Azerbaijan.

From October 2, 1937, the newspaper “Gızıl Shafaq” began to be published under the name “Communist”. The newspaper was published under the name “Soviet Armenia” from September 26, 1939 until it stopped publication at the end of 1989.

During the Soviet era, as a rule, local organizations were required to subscribe to the Communist Party and the government’s press agencies. However, the nationalist leaders of Armenia did not include the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper, which is an organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Council of Ministers, in the list of newspapers to be subscribed to. However, the number of readers of the newspaper was increasing. In the mid-80s, the circulation of the newspaper reached 10,000 copies.

Since the end of 1987, the editorial office of the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper had to take care of ensuring the safety of its employees, but also to act as a defender of the rights of Azerbaijanis whose human rights were grossly violated in the territory of Armenia, who faced pressure and persecution, and who were subjected to the violence of Armenians. With the signature of the editor-in-chief of the newspaper, appeals were made to the governing bodies of Armenia and the USSR about the pressures and violence against Azerbaijanis, and concrete measures were requested to be taken to ensure the safety of our compatriots. However, instead of taking serious measures, the Armenian leadership, implementing the “Turkless Armenia” policy, covered up all kinds of arbitrariness of the Armenian armed groups, which forced Azerbaijanis to leave the territory of the republic.

At the end of 1988, most of the employees of the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper had to move to Azerbaijan. At one of the rallies held in front of the Opera Theater in Iravan, it was decided to reckon with the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper, and the protesters surrounded the editorial building. About 20 employees of the editorial office were released from the hostage as a result of the special task force dispersing the demonstrators.

Candidate of historical sciences Israfil Mammadov was the last editor of “Soviet Armenia” newspaper in 1989. After the previous editor of the newspaper, Zarbali Gurbanov, was forced to leave Iravan, the Armenian administration entrusted Israfil Mammadov with continuing the publication of the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper. At that time, it was impossible to continue the publication of the newspaper under the conditions of lack of reporters, translators, proofreader and under severe Armenian censorship. However, in order to create the impression that the Azerbaijanis living there do not have any problems, the Armenian leadership tried with all its might to continue publishing the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper. Meanwhile at that time, Armenians lived prosperously in Baku, and “Communist” newspaper continued to be published in Armenian, as well as “Agitator” magazine, and “Grakan Adrbejan” (“Literary Azerbaijan”) magazine, an organ of the Writers’ Union, were published as usual. However, it was not possible to continue the publication of the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper, because it could only publish publish materials received mainly by teletype. At the end of 1989, the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper was closed forever. Israfil Mammadov, the editor of the newspaper, who remained in Iravan as a hostage, was brought to the Azerbaijan border in January 1990, accompanied by the military.

A team of professional journalists such as Tofig Mammadov, Latif Huseynov, Jumshud Sultanov, Rza Asgarov, Asgar Asgarov, Najaf Shabanov, Nusrat Sadigov, Allahyar Rahimov, Vidadi Guliyev was formed in the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper, which left an indelible mark in the history of the Azerbaijani press. Doctor of History Sabir Asadov, Doctor of Philology Teymur Ahmadov, editor of “Respublika” newspaper, poet-publicist Hidayat Orujov, Chairman of Azerbaijan State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company Babek Mammadov, Member of Milli Majlis Eldar Safarov were previously employees of the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper.

The editors of the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper, as a rule, were elected to the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR and became deputy chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR. From the biographies of the editors of the newspaper, it can be seen that from 1961 to 1989, as a rule, the editors of the “Soviet Armenia” newspaper were appointed the first secretary of the Amasiya District Party Committee. However, none of the editors of this newspaper, except Rza Valibayov, was lucky enough to live in Armenia until the end of his life.

Unfortunately, during the years of Soviet rule, when the archives of Iravan were partially open to Azerbaijani researchers, the history of the press published in the Azerbaijani language in Iravan has not been sufficiently investigated. Only researcher scientist Israfil Mammadov, in his PhD dissertation on “History of Azerbaijani press in Armenia”, which he defended in Iravan in 1972, investigated the magazines “Lek-Lek” and “Burhani-Haqiqat” which were published in Iravan during Tsarist Russia – at the beginning of the 20th century. Researcher-journalist Gazanfar Garibov carefully studied the history of newspapers published in the Azerbaijani language in Iravan during the years of Soviet rule in his diploma thesis “On the formation of periodical press bodies in the Azerbaijani language in Armenia” at the journalism faculty of the Azerbaijan State University in 1978.

Experienced journalists and broadcasters also worked in the editorial office of the Azerbaijani language programs in Iravan radio in. In addition to official news, reports and interviews prepared by reporters about labor collectives were played in the Azerbaijani language programs, which was aired every evening for half an hour, and then, as a rule, tapes containing Azerbaijani music were played. In December 1988, the editorial office of programs in the Azerbaijani language had to stop its activities, but even after the Azerbaijanis left Armenia, the programs in the Azerbaijani language on the Armenian radio were continued for a long time for political purposes voiced by Armenian broadcasters.

Nazim Mustafa
Doctor of philosophy in history, recipient of the State Prize